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neck and back shoulder
wrist hip
foot and ankle knee

Knee pain – A common complaint that affects people of all ages. It may be the result of an injury, such as a meniscus tear, or a medical condition such as arthritis. Many types of knee pain respond successful to physical therapy. Surgical repair may be needed for more serious and/or complex conditions.

Meniscus injuries/tears – Of all knee injuries, torn meniscus is among the most common. When the knee is forcefully twisted or rotated, especially under a person's full weight, a meniscus tear can occur. Each knee has two C shaped pieces of cartilage (called meniscus) that act as a cushion between the shinbone and thighbone. When a meniscus is stretched, a tear can occur, causing pain, swelling and stiffness. Meniscus tears can heal over time with rest and non-surgical treatment. Surgical repair also is quite common.

Meniscus surgery – Surgical repair of a torn meniscus is commonly performed with an arthroscope. It is a minimally invasive procedure that allows the doctor to see inside the knee and other joints – and do repairs without major surgery.

Patellofemoral Pain and Chondromalacia Patella (Runner's Knee) – Conditions that cause pain around the front of the knee. Athletes who compete in sports such as track and field, cycling, skiing and soccer put heavy stress on their knees. Resulting conditions include anterior (front) knee pain, patellofemoral malalignment (abnormal positioning of the kneecap) and chondromalacia patella (degeneration or softening of the cartilage in the kneecap caused by overuse or malalignment).

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Patellar Tendinitis (Jumper's Knee) – A micr-
oscopic tear of the tendons that connect the kneecap to the thigh muscles and shinbone, this condition is often sports related and is caused by an overuse of these tendons.

ACL/PCL (Anterior and Posterior Cruciate Ligament) Injuries – These ligaments cross inside the knee joint and provide the knee with vital strength and stability. Injuries occur most commonly during sports that involve sudden stops, changes in direction, pivoting and jumping, such as in tennis, basketball and soccer. The knee may swell, feel unstable and become too painful to bear weigh. Treatment for a torn ACL and PCL conditions usually requires surgery, followed by rehabilitation to help regain strength and stability.

MCL/LCL (Medial and Lateral Collateral Ligament) Injuries – Collateral ligament injuries are usually caused by a force that pushes the knee sideways. MCL injuries often occur from a direct blow to the outside of the knee, causing it to push inward toward the other knee. Conversely, LCL injuries can occur when the knee is pushed outward. Symptoms of these injuries can include swelling and instability.

Total knee replacement – When knee joints cannot be rehabilitated by other methods, surgical replacement may be a viable option. In total knee replacement surgery, damaged bone and cartilage are removed and replaced with an artificial joint of metal alloys, high-grade plastics and polymers. Advancements have improved a patient's ability to replicate the knee's natural ability to roll and glide as it bends.

Related conditions treated
Arthofibrosis (knee stiffness)
Microfracture surgery

tennis player